Joe’s research aims to explore whether and how net positive biodiversity outcomes and climate change mitigation can be achieved alongside economic development activities. To do so, he studies conservation strategies under climate change, compensatory conservation interventions (e.g. biodiversity offsetting), counterfactual ecological impact evaluation, ecosystem restoration for climate mitigation, social-ecological system dynamics, and ‘net gain’ for large organizations. Much of Joe’s work over the last decade has focused on dryland ecosystems in Central Asia and Australia, as well as temperate systems across Europe — particularly different vegetation communities, and the large mammals with which they interact.